Chardonnay is an important component of many sparkling wines around the world, including Champagne. A peak in popularity in the late 1980s gave way to a backlash among those wine drinkers who saw the grape as a leading negative component of the globalization of wine. Nonetheless, it remains one of the most widely-planted grape varieties, with over 160,000 hectares (400,000 acres) worldwide, second only to Airén among white wine grapes and planted in more wine regions than any other grape – including Cabernet Sauvignon.
|Merlot (梅洛, 也称作美露)|3. Merlot (梅洛, 也称作美露)是一种葡萄。起源地是法国波尔多右岸，是法国最为广泛种植的葡萄品种。单品种梅洛酿的葡萄酒，通常有丝绒般柔和的口感，具有梅子气息，其陈酿成熟速度快于赤霞珠。梅洛的颜色比赤霞珠少了一些蓝黑的色调，皮更薄，单宁更少。相比赤霞珠而言，梅洛的果肉更甜，果酸更低。 梅洛酿造的葡萄酒其香气往往具有樱桃、草莓、黑莓以及桑椹的气息。用单品种梅洛酿造出来的新鲜型葡萄酒，呈漂亮的深宝石红带微紫色，果香浓郁，酒香优雅，酒质柔顺，早熟易饮。 梅洛生长在寒冷的土壤里，特别是在含铁量较高的粘土中。当梅洛藤遭受类似于霜冻的不良影响时，它反而往往会早芽，它薄薄的葡萄皮让它更容易腐烂。梅洛的一个明显特点是，它从半熟到完全成熟，有时候只需要几天时间。
Merlot is a red wine grape that is used as both a blending grape and for varietal wines. The name Merlot is thought to derive from the Old French word for young blackbird, merlot, a diminutive of merle, theblackbird (Turdus merula), probably from the color of the grape. Merlot-based wines usually have medium body with hints of berry, plum, and currant. Its softness and "fleshiness", combined with its earlier ripening, makes Merlot a popular grape for blending with the sterner, later-ripening Cabernet Sauvignon, which tends to be higher in tannin. Along with Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Malbec and Petit Verdot, Merlot is one of the primary grapes in Bordeaux wine where it is the most widely planted grape. Merlot is also one of the most popular red wine varietals in many markets. This flexibility has helped to make it one of the world's most planted grape varieties. As of 2004, Merlot was estimated to be the third most grown variety at 260,000 hectares (640,000 acres) globally, with an increasing trend. This puts Merlot just behind Cabernet Sauvignon's 262,000 hectares (650,000 acres).
|Malbec (马尔贝克)|4. Malbec (马尔贝克) 马尔贝克的故乡在法国，这个“黑色葡萄酒”有着光辉灿烂的历史。19世纪60年代初，一场葡萄根瘤蚜虫灾害席卷法国、蔓延欧洲，持续了近半个世纪之久，欧洲大陆的葡萄园遭到毁灭性的破坏，后经嫁接美国葡萄砧木才得以起死回生。而偏居“新大陆”的马尔贝克却躲过这场灾难，幸存下来。从这个意义上说，我们喝一杯阿根廷的马尔贝克，其实是在品尝一种失传的味道，也即150年前的葡萄酒的原始味道。
Malbec is a purple grape variety used in making red wine. The grapes tend to have an inky dark color and robust tannins, and are long known as one of the six grapes allowed in the blend of red Bordeaux wine. The French plantations of Malbec are now found primarily in Cahors in the South West France region. It is increasingly celebrated as an Argentine varietal wine and is being grown around the world.
Called Auxerrois or Côt Noir in Cahors, called Malbec in Bordeaux, and Pressac in other places, the grape became less popular in Bordeaux after 1956 when frost killed off 75% of the crop. Despite Cahors being hit by the same frost, which devastated the vineyards, Malbec was replanted and continued to be popular in that area where it was mixed with Merlot and Tannat to make dark, full-bodied wines, and more recently has been made into 100% Malbec varietal wines. A popular but unconfirmed theory claims that Malbec is named after a Hungarian peasant who first spread the grape variety throughout France. However the French ampelographer and viticulturalist Pierre Galet notes that most evidence suggest that Côt was the variety's original name and that it probably originated in northern Burgundy. Despite a similar name, the grape Malbec argenté is not Malbec, but rather a variety of the southwestern French grape Abouriou. Due to the similarities in synonyms, Malbec has also been confused with Auxerrois blanc, which is an entirely different variety. The Malbec grape is a thin-skinned grape and needs more sun and heat than either Cabernet Sauvignon or Merlot to mature. It ripens mid-season and can bring very deep color, ample tannin, and a particular plum-like flavor component to add complexity to claret blends. Sometimes, especially in its traditional growing regions, it is not trellised and cultivated as bush vines (the goblet system). Here it is sometimes kept to a relatively low yield of about 6 tons per hectare. The wines are rich, dark and juicy. As a varietal, Malbec creates a rather inky red (or violet), intense wine, so it is also commonly used in blends, such as with Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon to create the red French Bordeaux claret blend. The grape is blended with Cabernet Franc and Gamay in some regions such as the Loire Valley. Other wine regions use the grape to produce Bordeaux-style blends. The varietal is sensitive to frost and has a proclivity to shatter or coulure.
5. Rioja 里奥哈Rioja专指葡萄酒产区，包括上里奥哈Rioja Alta，下里奥哈Rioja Baja，里奥哈阿拉韦萨Rioja Alavesa，和纳瓦拉Navarra的一小块。而拉里奥哈La Rioja专指行政区，在这个行政区内只包括上下里奥哈两个产区。里奥哈阿拉韦萨在行政上属于巴斯克地区的Alava省。里奥哈的葡萄酒在国际上享有很好的声誉，主要是它优秀的品质和大众般的价格。里奥哈的酿酒业前辈们已经挑选出最适宜的小块儿土地和最适合这里气候土壤的葡萄品种，并流传下来一套里奥哈特色的生产和陈放的方法。今天即便是已改进酿造工艺和生产设配的那些酒庄也依然保留着这些传统的东西。